Marketing Mix – Definition, 4Ps, 7Ps, 4Cs, Strategy, and Examples

What is Marketing Mix?

The marketing mix is a powerful toolbox that businesses use to achieve their marketing goals. It’s a strategic approach combining different elements to create a strong brand and boost sales. Originally known as the four Ps – Product, Price, Placement, and Promotion – this approach has evolved into the 7 Ps, adding People, Process, and Physical Evidence.

By using this mix, companies ensure their products align with customer needs, are priced effectively, available where customers look, and are promoted compellingly. For example, consider the right product for the right audience at the right price and place. It prevents missteps, like promoting winter coats in summer or setting the wrong price.

In essence, the marketing mix is a toolkit for crafting successful marketing strategies that understand customer desires and market dynamics. It’s about finding the perfect balance for a product to stand out, satisfy customers, and achieve business objectives in today’s competitive landscape.

Purpose of Marketing Mix

The purpose of the marketing mix is to create a perfect plan for promoting products or services. It helps businesses make smart choices about what to offer, how much to charge, where to sell, and how to communicate with customers. By balancing the four elements – product, price, place, and promotion, plus the three – people, processes, and physical evidence – companies can attract customers and succeed in the market.

A Brief History of Marketing Mix

The journey of the marketing mix began with a pioneer named E. Jerome McCarthy in 1960. He introduced the concept, focusing on four essential elements: Product, Price, Placement, and Promotion. This framework aimed to guide businesses in effectively marketing their products. Later, in 1981, Booms and Bitner expanded the concept by adding three more components: People, Physical Evidence, and Process, forming the 7 Ps.

This evolution reflects the need to adapt to changing market dynamics. Originally, it was all about crafting strategies for tangible goods, but as service industries grew, additional elements were introduced to ensure comprehensive marketing strategies. The marketing mix remains a crucial tool for businesses, helping them find the right balance between product, price, promotion, and place while considering customer needs and market trends.

Related: Consumer Needs

The 4 Ps of Marketing Mix

As mentioned above, let’s understand the 4 Ps of the marketing mix.


This is what a company offers to its customers. It can be a physical item or a service. The product needs to be designed in a way that fulfills customers’ needs and wants. Its quality, features, design, and even packaging are crucial. Understanding what customers desire and tailoring the product accordingly is vital for success.


Price refers to the amount customers pay to obtain the product or service. Setting the right price is important – it should be competitive while also reflecting the value customers perceive. Pricing strategies, discounts, and payment options all fall under this category. If the price is too high or too low, it can impact customers’ perceptions and buying decisions.


This is about getting the product to the customers. It involves selecting the right distribution channels and ensuring the product is available at the right locations. Convenience for customers matters here. It’s essential to reach customers where they are most likely to purchase.

Read Also: Roles and Responsibilities of a Marketer


Promotion is all about creating awareness and interest in the product. This includes advertising, public relations, sales promotions, and any other methods to communicate the product’s benefits to the target audience. Effective promotion helps in convincing potential customers to choose your product over competitors.

The 7 Ps of Marketing Mix

Due to the inability of the above 4 Ps of marketing to provide better customer service, the three additional Ps are added to the marketing mix. It is also called the expanded version of the marketing mix.


In the service world, people matter. It’s about friendly service providers who understand customers’ needs. Both employees and customers shape the experience. Positive attitudes and good relationships create lasting impressions.


How services happen matters. Efficient, customer-focused processes ensure consistent and smooth experiences. Fewer mistakes, happier customers. From start to finish, well-structured processes make things work seamlessly.

Physical Evidence

What customers see and feel counts. Clean spaces, professional looks, and branded materials make an impact. It’s about the environment and visual cues that build trust. Physical evidence shows your service is reliable and worth it.

Also Read: Types of Market

Importance of Marketing Mix

Here are six key reasons why the marketing mix is crucial:

Balanced Approach

Just like a balanced diet keeps you healthy, a balanced marketing mix ensures your business thrives. By addressing product, price, place, and promotion, you cover all the bases necessary for a successful launch or ongoing promotion.

Target Audience Relevance

Tailoring your marketing mix to suit your target audience is like speaking their language. If you’re selling high-tech gadgets, your price, place, and promotion should resonate with tech-savvy customers.

Competitive Edge

Standing out in a crowded market is vital. A well-crafted marketing mix can help you differentiate from competitors by highlighting what makes your product or service unique.

Customer-Centric Approach

The marketing mix makes the customer the star of the show. Addressing their needs and wants directly through your product, pricing, and promotion strategies shows that you’re putting them first.

Strategic Decision-Making

Just as a captain navigates a ship, the marketing mix guides your business. It helps in making informed decisions by analyzing data, understanding trends, and adapting to changes in the market.

Holistic Marketing

Think of the marketing mix as pieces of a puzzle. When they fit together, they create a complete picture of your marketing strategy. Neglecting even one piece could leave gaps that affect your overall success.

Read Also: The 5 Core Concepts of Marketing

Tips To Create A Marketing Mix Strategy

Creating an effective marketing mix strategy is like putting together a puzzle to make your business achieve marketing goals. Here are seven strategies to help you navigate this exciting journey:

  • Understand Your Audience: Just as a chef considers the preferences of diners, understand your customers’ needs, wants, and habits. This insight guides your product development, pricing, and promotion decisions.
  • Perfect Your Product: Craft a product that solves a problem or fulfills a desire for your target audience. Think of it as creating a dish that leaves customers craving for more.
  • Price Thoughtfully: Setting the right price is like putting a price tag on your culinary masterpiece. Research competitors’ prices, analyze production costs and consider perceived value to find the sweet spot.
  • Pick the Right Place: Like choosing the perfect restaurant location, decide where your product will be available. Think about where your customers are most likely to look for and buy your offering.
  • Promote Creatively: Just as a restaurant markets its signature dish, find creative ways to showcase your product. Utilize advertising, social media, influencer collaborations, and other tools to create a buzz.
  • Focus on People and Process: Train your team to provide excellent customer service. Just as a waiter’s friendliness enhances the dining experience, friendly and knowledgeable staff can build trust with customers.
  • Physical Evidence Matters: Make sure the packaging and presentation of your product reflect its quality. Just as an elegantly set table enhances the dining experience, appealing packaging can attract and reassure customers.

Examples of the Marketing Mix

Sure, let’s take a look at how Coca-Cola, a well-known brand, applies the 7 Ps of the marketing mix:

  • Product: Coca-Cola offers a range of beverages, from classic Coke to diet and flavored options. Their products are designed to quench thirst and provide refreshment.
  • Price: The pricing of Coca-Cola is competitive, considering its brand value and market demand. They often use pricing strategies like value bundles or limited-time discounts to attract consumers.
  • Place: Coca-Cola products are available worldwide, from supermarkets to convenience stores, ensuring easy accessibility for customers.
  • Promotion: Coca-Cola invests heavily in advertising, using catchy jingles and iconic campaigns to create emotional connections with consumers.
  • People: The people element focuses on both customers and employees. Coca-Cola’s staff are trained to provide friendly service, and the brand strives to build a connection with consumers.
  • Process: Coca-Cola’s production process is sophisticated, ensuring consistent taste across the globe. Their manufacturing and distribution processes are designed for efficiency.
  • Physical Evidence: The Coca-Cola logo, packaging, and visual elements provide a recognizable brand identity. The company’s commitment to sustainability also leaves a positive impression.

The 4 Cs of Marketing Mix

The 4 Cs of marketing, developed by Robert Lauterborn, flip the traditional approach to focus on customer-centric strategies. Here’s a simple breakdown:

  1. The Customer at the Core: Instead of starting with a product, begin by deeply understanding your customers’ needs, desires, and preferences.
  2. Cost to Customer: Rather than just setting a price, consider the overall cost to the customer, including time, effort, and any hidden expenses.
  3. Convenience is Key: Make it easy for customers to access and use your product or service. Think about their convenience, not just your own.
  4. Clear Communication: Shift from pushing a message to having meaningful conversations. Engage in transparent and valuable communication with your customers.

Read Next: Need Vs. Want in Marketing

Marketing Mix: FAQs

What are the 4 Ps of Marketing Mix?

Product, Price, Place, and Promotion are the 4 Ps of the Marketing Mix.

What are the 3 Additional Ps of Marketing?

People, Processes, and Physical Evidence are the 3 additional Ps of the Marketing Mix.

Who Developed the Marketing Mix Strategy?

E. Jerome McCarthy (1928-2015), an American Marketing Professor is considered the developer of the marketing mix strategy.

What are the 4 Cs of Marketing?

Customer, Cost, Convenience, and Communication are the 4 Cs of marketing.

What is Service Marketing Mix?

The combination of the original 4 Ps (product, price, place, and promotion) and 3 additional Ps (people, process, and physical evidence) is considered the service marketing mix.

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